While the United States currently has an edge in the race to develop Artificial Intelligence, China is rapidly gaining ground as Europe falls behind, according to a report released today by the Center for Data Innovation.

The study arrives amid a wide-ranging debate about which region has gained AI leadership, and the implications that holds for dominating cutting-edge technologies such as autonomous vehicles and other forms of automation. The winners of an AI arms race could hold a significant economic advantage in the decades to come.

There has been growing concern among U.S. tech companies and policymakers that China’s initiative to make it dominant in AI by 2030 is allowing it to dictate this critical field. The ability of its central government to allow sweeping data gathering and determine official champions to lead this charge seems to have given its efforts significant momentum.

However, the report paints a complex picture that shows all three regions have strong potential assets, as well as risks that could derail their AI efforts. Of the three, the EU may face the greatest challenges because it doesn’t lead in any of the six categories measured.

“AI is the next wave of innovation, and overlooking this opportunity will pose a threat to a region’s economic and national security,” said Center for Data Innovation director Daniel Castro in a statement. “The EU has a strong talent pool and an active research community, but unless it supercharges its current AI initiatives, it will not keep pace with China and the United States.”

The center chose to focus on six categories: talent, research, development, adoption, data, and hardware. Based on a 100-point scale, researchers found that the U.